COMMON NAME : Sumatran Tiger / Harimau Sumatera / Inyiak Balang

SCIENTIFIC NAME : Panthera tigris sumatrae

TYPE : Mammals

DIET : Carnivore

SIZE : Head to tail: 7.20 to 12.70 feet

WEIGHT : 375 to 684 pounds

IUCN RED LIST STATUS : Critically Endangered

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Biggest Carnivore from Sumatra Forest

Although, the Sumatran tiger is the smallest tiger subspecies in the world, they are the largest predator and endemic in Sumatra. They inhabit tropical rain forests with altitudes up to more than 3,000 m above sea level. They can also be found in riverine forests, swamp forests, and grasslands. Currently, the average density is less than 1 individual per 100 sq km.

The background color of the tiger’s fur is reddish orange to ocheros. The insides of the limbs and the belly, chest, throat, and muzzle are white or light cream-colored. There is a white area above the eyes, which extends onto the cheeks. A white spot is present on the backs of the ears. The tail is ringed with several dark bands. The flanks and shoulders are marked with dark vertical stripes that vary in width, spacing, length, and whether they are single or double. The stripes also extend onto the belly, and stripes patterns differ from one side of the cat’s body to the other. The dark lines above the eyes tend to be symmetrical, but the marks on each side of the face can be different, and no two tigers have the same marking. The tiger’s coat pattern of black stripes against a dark gold background looks very conspicuous is most cages or enclosures (Sunquist and Sunquist, 2002).


Males and females will only come across during mating season, then they will part again. The big cat is a territorial and solitary animal and tends to be active at night, although it sometimes appears during the day as well. They communicate with each other by roaring, purring, grunting, and chirping. They mark the territory using the scent of their urine and feces. Tiger’s paw contains scent glands also, so that when they scratch on a tree, it means they set boundaries of their territory.

Sumatran tiger can be found in most forest habitats at various altitudes. They are territorial and solitary. Male home rangers typically overlap with two or three female home ranges. Distribution and density are limited by availability of prey species and hunting pressure (Mossbrucker, 2020). Sumatran tiger must consume 5-6 kg of meat every day, which mostly 75% consisted of prey animals such as deer (Dinata and Sugardjito, 2008; Sunquits et. al., 1999). In Sumatra, sambar deer (Cervus sp.) and muntjac (Muntiacus muntjac) is the main prey animal for tiger, though will also prey on small animals (Dinata and Sugardjito, 2008).

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