Integrating Javan leopard conservation into a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in East Java, Indonesia

Wibisono H. T., E. Wilianto, R. A. A. Putri
2021. Oryx, 55(6), 809–817

The Endangered Javan leopard Panthera pardus melas is endemic to Java, one of the most populated islands, where it occurs in 22 isolated forest patches that comprise ,<9% (c. 1.2 million ha) of the island’s total land area. Fewer
than 400 adults remain in the wild; most of the extant subpopulations
will not survive unless conservation actions for this subspecies are improved. One of the best opportunities to connect Javan leopard subpopulations are the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves, including the Belambangan Biosphere Reserve in East Java. The Reserve incorporates three National Parks and one Nature Reserve (Meru Betiri, Alas Purwo, Baluran and Kawah Ijen) as core areas that together secure c. 78,000 ha of forest. The adjacent buffer zones provide an additional 100,000 ha of terrestrial habitat suitable for the Javan leopard.
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Photo by Meru Betiri National Park and SINTAS Indonesia